Reinders Duit

IPN - Leibniz Institute for Science Education at the University of Kiel
Olshausenstr. 62 24118 Kiel Germany

Bibliography - STCSE

Students' and Teachers' Conceptions and Science Education1


The bibliography is available in two versions:

In case that there are any problems or comments, please contact:

Content of the Introduction

(1) The main emphasis of the bibliography
(2) The structure of the bibliography
(3) Keywords
(4) Explanations of the entries

(1) The main emphasis of the bibliography

It has become somewhat misleading to indicate the research field presented in the bibliography using labels like "Students' alternative frameworks". The term alternative framework coined by Driver and Easley originally focused on students' alternative conceptions (as opposed to science conceptions) of phenomena, concepts and principles taught in science instruction, i.e. on conceptions at the content level. There have been strong trends in the direction of considering "alternative frameworks" of a much broader kind (e.g. including conceptions of the nature and range of science, conceptions of the learning process, and teachers' conceptions of various kinds). This research has been carried out within what is called the constructivist view including individual constructivist and social constructivist perspectives. The bibliography may therefore now be viewed as an attempt to document constructivist research in science education. The new name of the bibliography which is used since August 2002 takes this into account. Main emphasis of the bibliography is physics, chemistry and biology education but also studies on earth science are considered.

The bibliography is based on a collection of papers Helga Pfundt started in the late 70s. Sadly Helga Pfundt died in October 1984. Since then I (RD) have taken care of the bibliography. I include articles on empirical investigations and theoretical considerations, both publications in journals, books and the like and working papers, contributions to conferences etc. I analyze the leading English and German journals in the field of science education, books in our area, conference programs and other bibliographies. Many colleagues have been so kind as to send their recent articles and papers. I am most grateful for their help.

(2) The structure of the bibliography

We have divided the works into nine groups:

g1 General considerations concerning research in this area.
This comprises publications that deal quite generally with this field of research.

g2 Everyday conceptions and scientific conceptions
This group deals specifically with relations between everyday conceptions and scientific conceptions.

g3 Development of conceptions in the history of science as compared to development of conceptions in individuals
Many studies have shown that conceptions occur among pupils today which also played a role in the historical development of science. The work of this group investigates the significance of historical development for the development of conceptions in the individual.

g4 Language and conceptions
Many conceptions originate in everyday language, a problem area investigated here.

g5 Methods of investigation
To this group we have assigned publications which discuss methods of investigation.

g6 Investigations of students' conceptions
This is by far the largest group and contains works which give information on conceptions in various areas. The works are divided into thematic areas (see below).

g7 Instruction taking students' conceptions into account
This group comprises investigations concentrating on instruction in which students' conceptions are taken into account. Again the works are divided into thematic areas.

g8 Investigations of teachers' conceptions
Teachers' conceptions of various kinds are put into this group, as in g6 the works are divided into thematic areas. To differentiate between students' and teachers' conceptions is sometimes not easy. In literature occasionally student teachers' conceptions are called teachers' conceptions. The present group of the bibliography only contains studies on conceptions of teachers who already work in school practice.

g9 Conceptions and teacher training
Studies in which new approaches for teacher training (based at the constructivistic view) are developed and which report on empirical studies about the evaluation of such approaches.

gp Practice studies
Studies investigating the practice os science instruction in "normal" schools by various methods, e.g. video-bases methods, questionnaire, classroom observations.

(3) Keywords

The "keywords" g1 to g9 as well as gp represent the above mentioned nine groups.

It is not always easy to assign particular work to a particular group. We hope, however, that in most cases the most obvious group has been chosen. Many contributions are assigned to several groups and are therefore accompanied by several keywords (see below).

In a research area still in progress the system of classifying categories has to be open to new trends. The system of the groups g1 to g9 is used since the early 1980s. A number of additional keywords have been introduced since then. For more recent changes the year of introduction is given in brackets. Unfortunately, it was not possible so far, to code also the already existing entries employing the new keywords.

The different science subjects are indicated by:
P physics
C chemistry
B biology
ES earth science (since 2001)

If a publication in group g6, g7 or g8 is not followed by one of these keywords, it does not deal specifically with conceptions relating to one of these subjects.

Subdivisions of Physics (additional keywords introduced in 1998: *)
ATatoms and particles
CIRCelectric circuit (*)
CURRcurrent (*)
VOLTvoltage (*)
RESISresistance (*)
ESTATelectrostatics (*)
EDYNelectrodynamics (*)
EMAGelectromagnetism (*)
INDUinduction (*)
ACCELacceleration (*)
FORCEforce (*)
SPEEDspeed, velocity (*)
ROTrotational movement (*)
SIMMsimple machines (*)
GRAVgravity (*)
WEIGHTweight (*)
MASSmass (*)
VOLUMEvolume (*)
DENSITYdensity (*)
PRESSUREpressure (*)
BUOYbuoyancy (*)
OSMOSISosmosis (*)
DIFFUSIONdiffusion (*)
NONLINnon-linear systems
CHAOSchaos (*)
FRACTALfractals (*)
SELFORself organizing systems (*)
LIGHTlight and seeing (*)
REFLFRreflection and refraction (*)
LENSElenses and optical devices (*)
Qquantum physics
Rrelativistic physics
Theat (thermal physics)
HEATEMheat and temperature (*)
ENTentropy (*)
IRRirreversibility (*)
CHSTATEchanges of state (*)
STATMstatistical mechanics (*)

Subdivisions of Biology (since 1999)
BIODIVBiodiversity (concepts of animals,plants, microorganisms)
ECOLOGYIssues of ecology
GDDGrowth, development, differentiation
HEALTHHealth & disease
HUMANhuman biology
LIFEConcepts of life, characteristics of living beings
PHYSIOPhysiological issues - bio-chemistry & physics phenomena like photosynthesis or metabolism

There are no subdivisions introduced for Chemistry and Earth Science

Further keywords referring to articles in the groups g6, g7 and g8.
GC General conceptions and thought schemata (such as ideas of causality)
CTL Conceptions of the teaching and learning process.
This keyword emphazises empirical investigations on conceptions (of students or teachers) on teaching and learning.
CSC Conceptions (on the "nature and range") of science.
This keyword is used for empirical studies in which conceptions of science play a role.
STS Conceptions on the use of science for technology and society.
Under the heading of "STS" research and development, work is carried out on the use of science outside science. Empirical studies investigating conceptions of such uses in technology and society are marked by the keyword STS.
GEN Empirical studies in which gender differences are investigated
LPRO learning processes are investigated (since 1998)
VIDEO video dates are used (since 2000)

Further keywords - mostly in g1 (since 1999):
ACTTHactivity theory
AFRalternative framework
AFFaffective issues
APPRcognitive apprenticeship
ANTHROanthropomorphical issues
ANIManimistic issues
CCconceptual change
COSCcognitive science
RCONradical constructivism
SCONsocial constructivism
DISCOURSEdiscourse issues
EXNOVexperts and novices
INFORMALinformal learning settings
IMAGErole of images in learning
LABexperiment/lab work
MNmental models
MODELrole of models, modelling
NEUROneurological view of learning
PHENphenomenological views
PROSOLproblem solving
SITLsituated learning (cognition)
TXTtextbook issues


(4) Explanations of the entries

The single entries in the rtf file come in a slight variant of the APA 5th style format. After the // the keywords are listet, e.g.:

Journal Article:
Abd-El-Khalick, F., BouJaoude, S. (1997). An exploratory study of the knowledge base for science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 34(7), 673-699 // g8,CSC

Abell, S. K. (2000). Science teacher education - an international perspective. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers // g9

Contribution to a book
Aalst, H. F. v. (1985). The differentiation between connections in series and in parallel from cognitive mapping. Implications for teaching. In R. Duit, Jung, W. , Rhoeneck, C. von, Aspects of understanding electricity. Kiel: Schmidt & Klaunig: 115-128 // g6,g7,P,E

Conference Papers and Occasional Papers
Abd-El-Khalick, F., Lederman, N. G. (1998). Improving science teachers' conceptions of the nature of science. Paper presented at the annual meeting NARST, San Diego, 1998, 1-66 // g7,g8,CTL,CSC

1 Formerly: Helga Pfundt & Reinders Duit
Bibliography – Students’ Alternative Frameworks and Science Education
Bibliographie – Schülervorstellungen und naturwissenschaftlicher Unterricht